Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook – Karl B. Schnelle

Air Pollution Control Technology –  Air Pollution Control Technology –  Air Pollution Control Technology

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Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook – Karl B. Schnelle có 24 chương.

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Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook - Karl B. Schnelle
Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook – Karl B. Schnelle

II. MỤC LỤC

Chapter 1 A Historical Overview of the Development of Clean Air

1.1 A Brief History of the Air Pollution Problem

1.2 Federal Involvement in Air Pollution Control

1.3 Characterizing the Atmosphere

1.4 Recipe for an Air Pollution Problem

1.4.1 Sources of Air Pollution

1.4.2 Meteorological Parameters Affecting Transport of Pollutants

1.4.3 The Effects of Air Pollution — A Comparison of London Fog

Refereances

Chapter 2 Clean Air Act

2.1 History of the Clean Air Act

2.1.1 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments

Regulations

and Los Angeles Smog

2.1.2 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments

2.2 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

2.2.1 Title I: Provisions for Attainment and Maintenance of National

2.2.2 Title II: Mobile Sources

2.2.3 Title III: Hazardous Air Pollutant Program

2.1.1.1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards

2.1.1.2 New Source Performance Standards

2.1.1.3 Hazardous Air Pollutants

2.1.1.4 Citizen Suits

2.1.2.1 Prevention of Significant Deterioration

2.1.2.2 Offsets in Non-Attainment Areas

Ambient Air Quality Standards

2.2.1.1 NAAQS Revisions

2.2.3.1 Source Categories

2.2.3.2 Establishing MACT Standards

2.2.3.3 Risk Management Plans

2.2.4 Title IV: Acid Deposition Control

2.2.5 Title V: Operating Permits

2.2.6 Title VI: Stratospheric Ozone Protection

2.2.7 Title VII: Enforcement

2.2.8 Title VIII: Miscellaneous Provisions

2.2.9 Title IX: Research

2.2.10 Title X: Disadvantaged Business

2.2.11 Title XI: Employment Transition Assistance

References

Chapter 3 Air Permits for New Source

3.1 Elements of a Permit Application

3.1.1 Applicability

3.1.1.1 Potential to Emit

3.1.1.2 Fugitive Emissions

3.1.1.3 Secondary Emissions

3.1.2 Significant Emission Rates

3.1.3 Modification

3.1.4 Emissions Netting

3.2 Best Available Control Technology

3.2.1 Step 1: Identify Control Technologies

3.2.2 Step 2: Eliminate Technically Infeasible Options

3.2.3 Step 3: Rank Remaining Options by Control Effectiveness

3.2.4 Step 4: Evaluate Control Technologies in Order of Control

3.1.4.1 Netting Example

Effectiveness

3.2.4.1 Energy Impacts

3.2.4.2 Environmental Impacts

3.2.4.3 Economic Impacts and Cost Effectiveness

3.2.5 Step 5: Select BACT

3.3 Air Quality Analysis

3.3.1 Preliminary Analysis

3.3.2 Full Analysis

3.4 NSR Reform

References

Air Pollution Control Technology –  Air Pollution Control Technology –  Air Pollution Control Technology

Chapter 4 Atmospheric Diffusion Modeling for PSD Permit Regulations

4.1 Introduction — Meteorological Background

4.1.1 Inversions

4.1.1.1 Surface or Radiation Inversions

4.1.1.2 Evaporation Inversion

4.1.1.3 Advection Inversion

4.1.1.4 Subsidence Inversion

4.1.2 The Diurnal Cycle

4.1.3 Principal Smoke-Plume Models

4.2 The Tall Stack

4.3 Classifying Sources by Method of Emission

4.3.1 A Definition of Tall Stacks

4.3.2 Process Stacks

4.4 Atmospheric-Diffusion Models

4.4.1 Other Uses of Atmospheric-Diffusion Models

4.5 EPA Computer Programs for Regulation of Industry

4.5.1 The Industrial Source Complex Model

4.5.2 Screening Models

4.5.3 The New Models

4.6 The Source–Transport–Receptor Problem

4.6.1 The Source

4.6.2 Transport

4.6.2.1 The Effective Emission Height

4.6.2.2 Bulk Transport of the Pollutants

4.6.2.3 Dispersion of the Pollutants

4.6.3 The Receptor

References

Chapter 5 Source Testing

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Code of Federal Regulations

5.3 Representative Sampling Techniques

5.3.1 Gaseous Pollutants

5.3.2 Velocity and Particulate Traverses

5.3.3 Isokinetic Sampling

References

Chapter 6 Ambient Air Quality and Continuous Emissions Monitoring

6.1 Ambient Air Quality Sampling Program

6.2 Objectives of a Sampling Program

6.3 Monitoring Systems

6.3.1 Fixed vs. Mobile Sampling

6.3.2 Continuous vs. Integrated Sampling

6.3.3 Selection of Instrumentation and Methods

6.4 Federal Reference Methods and Continuous Monitoring

6.5 The “Complete” Environmental Surveillance and Control System

6.6 Typical Air Sampling Train

6.7 Integrated Sampling Devices for Suspended Particulate Matter

6.8 Continuous Air Quality Monitors

6.8.1 Electroconductivity Analyzer for SO2

6.8.2 Coulometric Analyzer for SO2

6.8.3 Nondispersive Infrared Method for CO

6.8.4 Flame Photometric Detection of Total Sulfur and SO2

6.8.5 Hydrocarbons by Flame Ionization

6.8.6 Fluorescent SO2 Monitor

6.8.7 Chemilumenescence for Detection of Ozone and Nitrogen

6.8.8 Calibration of Continuous Monitors

Oxides

6.8.8.1 Specifications for Continuous Air-Quality Monitors

6.8.8.2 Steady-State Calibrations

References

Chapter 7 Cost Estimating

7.1 Time Value of Money

7.1.1 Annualized Capital Cost

7.1.2 Escalation Factors

7.2 Types of Cost Estimates

7.3 Air Pollution Control Equipment Cost

7.3.1 OAQPS Control Cost Manual

7.3.2 Other Cost-Estimating Resources

References

Chapter 8 Process Design and the Strategy of Process Design

8.1 Introduction to Process Design

8.2 The Strategy of Process Design

8.2.1 Process Flowsheets

8.3 Mass and Energy Balances

8.3.1 A Mass-Balance Example

8.3.2 An Energy-Balance Example

References

Air Pollution Control Technology –  Air Pollution Control Technology –  Air Pollution Control Technology

Chapter 9 Profitability and Engineering Economics

9.1 Introduction — Profit Goal

9.2 Profitability Analysis

9.2.1 Mathematical Methods for Profitability Evaluation

9.2.2 Incremental Rate of Return on Investments as a Measure of

9.3 The Effect of Depreciation

9.3.1 An Example

9.4 Capital Investment and Total Product Cost

9.4.1 Design Development

References

Profitability

9.2.2.1 An Example

Chapter 10 Introduction to Control of Gaseous Pollutants

10.1 Absorption and Adsorption

10.1.1 Fluid Mechanics Terminology

10.1.2 Removal of HAP and VOC by Absorption and Adsorption

Reference

Chapter 11 Absorption for HAP and VOC Control

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Aqueous Systems

11.3 Nonaqueous Systems

11.4 Types and Arrangements of Absorption Equipment

11.5 Design Techniques for Countercurrent Absorption Columns

11.5.1 Equilibrium Relationships

11.5.2 Ideal Solutions — Henry’s Law

11.5.3 Countercurrent Absorption Tower Design Equations

11.5.4 Origin of Volume-Based Mass-Transfer Coefficients

11.5.5 The Whitman Two-Film Theory

11.5.6 Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients

11.5.7 Volume-Based Mass-Transfer Coefficients

11.5.8 Determining Height of Packing in the Tower: the HTU

11.5.9 Dilute Solution Case

11.6 Countercurrent Flow Packed Absorption Tower Design

11.6.1 General Considerations

11.6.2 Operations of Packed Towers

11.6.3 Choosing a Tower Packing

11.6.4 Packed Tower Internals

11.6.5 Choosing a Liquid–Gas Flow Ratio

11.6.6 Determining Tower Diameter — Random Dumped Packing

11.6.7 Determining Tower Diameter — Structured Packing

11.6.8 Controlling Film Concept

11.6.9 A Correlation for the Effect of L/G Ratio on the Packing

11.6.10 Henry’s Law Constants and Mass-Transfer Information

11.6.11 Using Henry’s Law for Multicomponent Solutions

11.7 Sample Design Calculation

11.7.1 Flooding

11.7.2 Structured Packing

References

11.5.4.1 Steady-State Molecular Diffusion

Method

11.6.3.1 Dumped Packings

Height

Chapter 12 Adsorption for HAP and VOC Control

12.1 Introduction to Adsorption Operations

12.2 Adsorption Phenomenon

12.3 Adsorption Processes

12.3.1 Stagewise Process

12.3.2 Continuous Contact, Steady-State, Moving-Bed Adsorbers

12.3.3 Unsteady-State, Fixed-Bed Adsorbers

12.3.4 Newer Technologies

12.4 Nature of Adsorbents

12.4.1 Adsorption Design with Activated Carbon

12.5 The Theories of Adsorption

12.6 The Data of Adsorption

12.7 Adsorption Isotherms

12.7.1 Freundlich’s Equation

12.7.2 Langmuir’s Equation

12.7.3 The Brunner, Emmett, Teller, or BET, Isotherm

12.8 Polanyi Potential Theory

12.9 Unsteady-State, Fixed-Bed Adsorbers

12.10 Fixed-Bed Adsorber Design Considerations

12.10.1 Safety Considerations

12.11 Pressure Drop Through Adsorbers

12.12 Adsorber Effectiveness and Regeneration

12.12.1 Steam Regeneration

12.12.2 Hot Air or Gas Regeneration

12.13 Breakthrough Model

12.13.1 Mass Transfer

12.13.2 Breakthrough Curve Example

12.14 Regeneration Modeling

References

12.3.4.1 Rotary Wheel Adsorber

12.3.4.2 Chromatographic Adsorption

12.3.4.3 Pressure Swing Adsorption

12.4.1.1 Pore Structure

12.4.1.2 Effect of Relative Humidity

12.7.3.1 Adsorption without Capillary Condensation

12.7.3.2 Adsorption with Capillary Condensation

Chapter 13 Thermal Oxidation for VOC Control

13.1 Combustion Basics

13.2 Flares

13.2.1 Elevated, Open Flare

13.2.2 Smokeless Flare Assist

13.2.3 Flare Height

13.2.4 Ground Flare

13.2.5 Safety Features

13.3 Incineration

13.3.1 Recuperative Thermal Oxidizer

13.3.2 Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer

13.3.3 Recuperative vs. Regenerative Design Selection

13.4 Catalytic Oxidation

References

Chapter 14 Control of VOC and HAP by Condensation

14.1 Introduction

14.2 VOC Condensers

14.2.1 Contact Condensers

14.2.2 Surface Condensers

14.3 Coolant and Heat Exchanger Type

14.3.1 An Example — Heat Exchanger Area and Coolant Flow Rate

14.4 Mixtures of Organic Vapors

14.4.1 An Example — Condensation of a Binary Mixture

14.5 Air As a Noncondensable

References

Appendix A: Derivation of the Area Model for a Mixture Condensing

Appendix B: Algorithm for the Area Model for a Mixture Condensing

14.2.2.1 An Example — Condensation Temperature

from a Gas

from a Gas

Chapter 15 Control of VOC and HAP by Biofiltration

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Theory of Biofilter Operation

15.3 Design Parameters and Conditions

15.3.1 Depth and Media of Biofilter Bed

15.3.2 Microorganisms

15.3.3 Oxygen Supply

15.3.4 Inorganic Nutrient Supply

15.3.5 Moisture Content

15.3.6 Temperature

15.3.7 pH of the Biofilter

15.3.8 Loading and Removal Rates

15.3.9 Pressure Drop

15.3.10 Pretreatment of Gas Streams

15.4 Biofilter Compared to Other Available Control Technology

15.5 Successful Case Studies

15.6 Further Considerations

References

Chapter 16 Membrane Separation

16.1 Overview

16.2 Polymeric Membranes

16.3 Performance

16.4 Applications

References

Chapter 17 NOx Control

17.1 NOx from Combustion

17.1.1 Thermal NOx

17.1.2 Prompt NOx

17.1.3 Fuel NOx

17.2 Control Techniques

17.2.1 Combustion Control Techniques

17.2.2 Flue Gas Treatment Techniques

17.2.1.1 Low-Excess Air Firing

17.2.1.2 Overfire Air

17.2.1.3 Flue Gas Recirculation

17.2.1.4 Reduce Air Preheat

17.2.1.5 Reduce Firing Rate

17.2.1.6 Water/Steam Injection

17.2.1.7 Burners out of Service (BOOS)

17.2.1.8 Reburn

17.2.1.9 Low-NOx Burners

17.2.1.10 Ultra Low-NOx Burners

17.2.2.1 Selective Noncatalytic Reduction (SNCR)

17.2.2.2 Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

17.2.2.3 Low-Temperature Oxidation with Absorption

17.2.2.4 Catalytic Absorption

17.2.2.5 Corona-Induced Plasma

References

Chapter 18 Control Of SOx

18.1 H2S Control

18.2 SO2 (and HCl) Removal

18.2.1 Reagents

18.2.2 Capital vs. Operating Costs

18.2.1.1 Calcium-Based Reactions

18.2.1.2 Calcium-Based Reaction Products

18.2.1.3 Sodium-Based Reactions

18.2.1.4 Sodium-Based Reaction Products

18.2.2.1 Operating Costs

18.2.3 SO2 Removal Processes

18.2.3.1 Wet Limestone

18.2.3.2 Wet Soda Ash or Caustic Soda

18.2.3.3 Lime Spray Drying

18.2.3.4 Circulating Lime Reactor

18.2.3.5 Sodium Bicarbonate/Sodium Sesquicarbonate

Injection

18.2.3.6 Other SO2 Removal Processes

18.2.4 Example Evaluation

18.3 SO3 and Sulfuric Acid

18.3.1 SO3 and H2SO4 Formation

18.3.2 Toxic Release Inventory

References

Chapter 19 Fundamentals of Particulate Control

19.1 Particle-Size Distribution

19.2 Aerodynamic Diameter

19.3 Cunningham Slip Correction

19.4 Collection Mechanisms

19.4.1 Basic Mechanisms: Impaction, Interception, Diffusion

19.4.2 Other Mechanisms

19.4.1.1 Impaction

19.4.1.2 Interception

19.4.1.3 Diffusion

19.4.2.1 Electrostatic Attraction

19.4.2.2 Gravity

19.4.2.3 Centrifugal Force

19.4.2.4 Thermophoresis

19.4.2.5 Diffusiophoresis

References

Chapter 20 Hood and Ductwork Design

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Hood Design

20.2.1 Flow Relationship for the Various Types of Hoods

20.2.1.1 Enclosing Hoods

20.2.1.2 Rectangular or Round Hoods

20.2.1.3 Slot Hoods

20.2.1.4 Canopy Hoods

20.3 Duct Design

20.3.1 Selection of Minimum Duct Velocity

20.3.2 The Mechanical Energy Balance

20.3.2.1 Velocity Head

20.3.2.2 Friction Head

20.4 Effect of Entrance into a Hood

20.5 Total Energy Loss

20.6 Fan Power

20.7 Hood-Duct Example

References

Chapter 21 Cyclone Design

21.1 Collection Efficiency

21.1.1 Factors Affecting Collection Efficiency

21.1.2 Theoretical Collection Efficiency

21.1.3 Lapple’s Efficiency Correlation

21.1.4 Leith and Licht Efficiency Model

21.1.5 Comparison of Efficiency Model Results

21.2 Pressure Drop

21.3 Saltation

References

Chapter 22 Design and Application of Wet Scrubbers

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Collection Mechanisms and Efficiency

22.3 Collection Mechanisms and Particle Size

22.4 Selection and Design of Scrubbers

22.5 Devices for Wet Scrubbing

22.6 The Semrau Principle and Collection Efficiency

22.7 A Model for Counter-Current Spray Scrubbers

22.7.1 Application to a Spray Tower

22.8 A Model for Venturi Scrubbers

22.9 The Calvert Cut Diameter Design Technique

22.9.1 An Example Calculation

22.9.2 Second Example Problem

22.10 The Cut-Power Relationship

References

Additional References

Appendix A: Calvert Performance Cut Diameter Data

Chapter 23 Filtration and Baghouses

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Design Issues

23.3 Cleaning Mechanisms

23.3.1 Shake/Deflate

23.3.2 Reverse Air

23.3.3 Pulse Jet (High Pressure)

23.3.4 Pulse Jet (Low Pressure)

23.3.5 Sonic Horns

23.4 Fabric Properties

23.4.1 Woven Bags

23.4.2 Felted Fabric

23.4.3 Surface Treatment

23.4.4 Weight

23.4.5 Membrane Fabrics

23.4.6 Catalytic Membranes

23.4.7 Pleated Cartridges

23.4.8 Ceramic Candles

23.5 Baghouse Size

23.5.1 Air-to-Cloth Ratio

23.5.2 Can Velocity

23.6 Pressure Drop

23.7 Bag Life

23.7.1 Failure Modes

23.7.2 Inlet Design

23.7.3 Startup Seasoning

References

Chapter 24 Electrostatic Precipitators

24.1 Early Development

24.2 Basic Theory

24.2.1 Corona Formation

24.2.2 Particle Charging

24.2.3 Particle Migration

24.2.4 Deutsch Equation

24.2.4.1 Sneakage

24.2.4.2 Rapping Re-Entrainment

24.2.4.3 Particulate Resistivity

24.2.4.4 Gas-Flow Distribution

24.3 Practical Application of Theory

24.3.1 Effective Migration Velocity

24.3.2 Automatic Voltage Controller

24.4 Flue Gas Conditioning

24.4.1 Humidification

24.4.2 SO3

24.4.3 Ammonia

24.4.4 SO3 and Ammonia

24.4.5 Ammonium Sulfate

24.4.6 Proprietary Additives

24.5 Using V-I Curves for Troubleshooting

References

Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook – Karl B. Schnelle
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